World Neurosurg. (2017) 106:1015-1029. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.140.
Recent biotechnological advances, including three- dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neu- roimaging, have continued to mold the surgeonecomputer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual under- standing of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and appli- cation of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training.