World Neurosurgery. Published online October 2, 2017. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.140
Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon–computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training.