Neuroendoscopic training in neurosurgery: a simple and feasible model for neurosurgical education

Mario Gomar-Alba, Tesifón Parrón-Carreño, José María Narro-Donate, Antonio José Vargas-López, María José Castelló-Ruiz, Fernando García-Pérez, José Javier Guil-Ibáñez, José Masegosa-González

Child’s Nervous System (2021)



The development of high levels of technical competence and excellent decision-making skills are key goals of all neurosurgical residency training programs. This acquisition of technical skills is becoming increasingly difficult due to many factors including less exposure to operative cases, demand for more time and cost-effective practices, and resident work hour restrictions. We describe a step-by-step method for how to build a low-cost and feasible model that allows residents to improve their neuroendoscopic skills.


The bell pepper-based model was developed as an endoscopic training model. Using continuous irrigation, several hands-on procedures were proposed under direct endoscopic visualization. Endoscope setup, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, septostomy, and tumor biopsy procedures were simulated and video recorded for further edition and analysis.


The model can be setup in less than 15 min with minimal cost and infrastructure requirements. A single model allows simulation of all the exercises described above. The model allows exposure to the camera skills, instrument handling, and hand-eye coordination inherent to most neuroendoscopic procedures.


Minimal infrastructure requirements, simplicity, and easily setup models provide a proper environment for regular training. The bell pepper-based model is inexpensive, widely available, and a feasible model for routine training. Neurosurgery residents may benefit from the use of this model to accelerate their learning curve and familiarize themselves with the neuroendoscopic core principles in a risk-free environment without time or resource constraints.