Neurosurgery Simulators Developed for Neurosurgical Training in Brazil: A Systematic Review

Bernardo Drummond-Braga, Nayara Matos Pereira, João Henrique Vieira Pedroso, Vinicius da Silva Oliveira, Marcelo Ribeiro da Rocha, Lucas Wilson Matos Gomes, Mariana Vieira Martins Sampaio Drummond, Ana Luiza Morais Avelar Drummond, Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro Oliveira, Marco Tulio Antonio Garcia-Zapata

DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1696708

Brazilian Neurosurgery

Introduction Simulation in neurosurgery is a growing trend in medical residency programs around the world due to the concerns there are about patient safety and the advancement of surgical technology. Simulation training can improve motor skills in a safe environment before the actual setting is initiated in the operating room. The aim of this review is to identify articles that describe Brazilian simulators, their validation status and the level of evidence (LoE).

Methodology This study was conducted using the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A search was performed in the Medline, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The studies were evaluated according to the Medical Education Research Quality Instrument (MERSQI), and the LoE of the study was established according to the classification system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM), which has been adapted by the European Association of Endoscopic Surgery.

Results Of all the studies included in this review, seven referred to validated simulators. These 7 studies were assigned an average MERSQI score of 8.57 from 18 possible points. None of the studies was randomized or conducted in a high-fidelity environment. The best evidence was provided by the studies with the human placenta model, which received a score of 2b and a degree of recommendation of 3.