Mauro A. T. Ferreira, Fundamentals of Neurosurgery, First Online: 13 July 2019
Neurological surgery is a rapidly evolving medical field. Although relatively new, this medical specialty has experienced an unprecedented technological development. As we live the so-called fourth industrial revolution, neurosurgery seems to be following this revolution closely. It consists of robotics, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, extensive study of epigenetics, tridimensional printing, big computer data, and automated machines, among others. This fascinating era has been reviewed in light of the fourth human revolution. The chapter is divided into various topics corresponding to different neurosurgical fields. Many recent advancements are presented, as well as what might be expected for doctors and patients. This chapter is based on current medical and technical literature, as we present today’s developments. Some topics allow us to predict what may be expected for us in the near future, since knowledge and technology have never developed so quickly.