Virtual Reality Based Simulators for Neurosurgeons – What We Have and What We Hope to Have in the Nearest Future

Biomedical Engineering and Neuroscience. BCI 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 720. Published online February 7th, 2018.
doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-75025-5_1

Dariusz Latka, Marek Waligora, Kajetan Latka, Grzegorz Miekisiak, Michal Adamski, Klaudia Kozlowska, Miroslaw Latka, Katarzyna Fojcik, Dariusz Man, Ryszard Olchawa


High levels of manual skills, good visual-motor coordination, excellent imagination and spatial awareness are the main factors determining the success of neurosurgeons. Proficiency in neurosurgical skills used to be acquired through hands-on training in cadaver labs and in real operating theatres under master neurosurgeon supervision. Most recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) computer simulations have also been considered as tools for education in the neurosurgical training. The authors review existing solutions and present their own concept of a simulator which could become the useful tool for planning, simulation and training of a specific neurosurgical procedure using
patient’s imaging data. The benefits of simulator are particularly apparent in the context of neurovascular operations. It is the field in which it is very difficult for young neurosurgeons to gain proficiency because of the lack of experience caused by the competition between microsurgery and endovascular techniques.