Critical Success Factors for Virtual Reality Applications in Orthopaedic Surgical Training

Mohd Yazid Bajuri, Youcef Benferdia, Mohammad Nazir Ahmad

IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 128574-128589, 2021.
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3112345.


There is an increasing pressure to improve the cost-effectiveness of orthopaedic training, both temporally and financially. Accordingly, virtual reality (VR) has been incorporated into a number of surgical training programs, providing trainees a safe yet realistic environment to practice their craft before going into the operating room. Identification of critical success factors (CSFs) for VR integration in the orthopaedic training program, can be beneficial in guiding the focus of healthcare providers and VR designers during the VR platform development stage. The aim of this study is to identify VR-based training CSFs that encourage orthopaedic surgeons to use VR as a method for acquiring, maintaining, and improving skills. A total of 74 studies conducted between 2011 and 2021 were selected and examined. There were 73 CSFs listed as being essential for VR adoption in orthopaedic surgical training. The CSFs were divided into six general categories: HCI/VR Features, Learning Outcome, Usability, Control and Active Learning, Student and Limitation factors. Subsequently, recommendations were made to guide healthcare professionals, researchers, and designers for optimal adoption of VR in orthopaedic surgical training in the future.