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Phenomenological Contact Model Characterization and Haptic Simulation of an Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery Virtual System
Soroush Sadeghnejad, Mojtaba Esfandiari, Farzam Farahmand, G.R. Vossoughi
During the endoscopic sinus and skull base training surgeries, the haptic perception of tool-tissue interaction and even transitions and ruptures in the tissues are fundamental which should be taken into account in a robotic control scheme. However, this problem is extremely complex given the nature and the variety of tissues involved in an ESS procedures. In this article, ex-vivo indentation and relaxation experiments associated with an offline model estimation of the interaction between tissues and a surgical tool are presented. The estimated parameters of the modified Kelvin-Voigt model are then used to provide a realistic tool-tissue interaction dynamic model. Finally, the principle of a virtual reality simulation scheme that would allow better haptic discrimination of tool-tissue interaction is proposed and illustrated.