Surgical Training 2.0: A systematic approach reviewing the literature focusing on oral maxillofacial surgery – Part II

Joël Ferri, Romain Nicot

In Journal of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery. November 2020.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jormas.2020.11.010



Many technologies are emerging in the medical field. Having an overview of the technological arsenal available to train new surgeons seems very interesting to guide subsequent surgical training protocols.


This article is a systematic approach reviewing new technologies in surgical training, in particular in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review explores what new technologies can do compared to traditional methods in the field of surgical education. A structured literature search of PubMed was performed in adherence to PRISMA guidelines. The articles were selected when they fell within predefined inclusion criteria while respecting the key objectives of this systematic review. We looked at medical students and more specifically in surgery and analysed whether exposure to new technologies improved their surgical skills compared to traditional methods. Each technology is reviewed by highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and studying the feasibility of integration into current practice.


The results are encouraging. Indeed, all of these technologies make it possible to reduce the learning time, the operating times, the operating complications and increase the enthusiasm of the students compared to more conventional methods. The start-up cost, the complexity to develop new models, and the openness of mind necessary for the integration of these technologies are all obstacles to immediate development. The main limitations of this review are that many of the studies have been carried out on small numbers, they are not interested in acquiring knowledge or skills over the long term and obviously there is a publication bias.


Surgical education methods will probably change in the years to come, integrating these new technologies into the curriculum seems essential so as not to remain on the side.

This second part therefore reviews, social networks, serious games and virtual reality.