Journal of Surgical Education. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.02.007
The Effect of 3-Dimensional Simulation on Neurosurgical Skill Acquisition and Surgical Performance: A Review of the Literature
Anna D. Clark, BA (Hons), Damiano G. Barone, MRCS (UK), Nicholas Candy, MBBS, Mathew Guilfoyle, MRCS (UK), Karol Budohoski, MRCS (UK), Riikka Hofmann, PhD, Thomas Santarius, FRCS (SN), Ramez Kirollos, FRCS (SN), Rikin A. Trivedi, FRCS (SN)
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, 3-dimensional (3D) simulation of neurosurgical procedures has become increasingly popular as an addition to training programmes. However, there remains little objective evidence of its effectiveness in improving live surgical skill. This review analysed the current literature in 3D neurosurgical simulation, highlighting remaining gaps in the evidence base for improvement in surgical performance and suggests useful future research directions.
DESIGN: An electronic search of the databases was conducted to identify studies investigating 3D virtual reality (VR) simulation for various types of neurosurgery. Eligible studies were those that used a combination of metrics to measure neurosurgical skill acquisition on a simulation trainer. Studies were excluded if they did not measure skill acquisition against a set of metrics or if they assessed skills that were not used in neurosurgical practice. This was not a systematic review however, the data extracted was tabulated to allow comparison between studies
RESULTS: This study revealed that the average overall quality of the included studies was moderate. Only one study assessed outcomes in live surgery, while most other studies assessed outcomes on a simulator using a variety of metrics.
CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that in its current state, the evidence for 3D simulation suggests it as a useful supplement to training programmes but more evidence is needed of improvement in surgical performance to warrant large-scale investment in this technology.
KEYWORKDS: 3-dimensional; neurosurgical; training; simulators