World Neurosurgery. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2015.11.068
Simulation in Neurosurgery—A Brief Review and Commentary
Mary In-Ping Huang Cobb, Jeffrey M. Taekman, Ali R. Zomorodi, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Dennis A. Turner
Neurosurgery is one of the most technically demanding and liable of all medical professionals. More than 75% of neurosurgical errors are deemed as preventable and technical in nature. Yet in a specialty that requires such high level of technical expertise, with large consequences for error, there are even fewer opportunities for residents in training to practice on the most complicated cases. Although there is no replacement for actual experiences in the operating room, interpersonal mentorship, coaching, and training, there is room to supplement residency education through simulation. Here we review the evidence to support surgical simulation, describe the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies in direct neurosurgery specific and indirect simulation applications, and advocate for the development of more neurosurgery-specific applications using emerging kinetic technologies.
KEYWORDS: Haptic feedback, Neurostimulation, Neurosurgery simulation, Residency training, Technical skills education